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The surface chemical reactivity of combustion particles
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Nova Science Publ., New York
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A Knudsen flow reactor has been used to quantify functional groups on the surface of seven different types of combustion particle samples: 3 amorphous carbons (FS 101, Printex 60, FW 2), 2 flame soots (hexane soot generated from a rich and a lean diffusion flame), and 2 Diesel particles (SRM 2975, Diesel soot recovered from a Diesel particulate filter). The technique is based on a heterogeneous titration reaction between a probe gas and a specific functional group on the particle surface. Six probe gases have been selected for the quantification of important functional groups: N(CH3)3 for the titration of acidic sites, NH2OH for carbonyl functions of aldehydes and ketones, CF3COOH and HCl for basic sites of different strength, O3 and NO2 for oxidizable groups. The limit of detection was generally well below 1% of a formal monolayer of adsorbed probe gas. Results obtained with N(CH3)3 were higher for the FW 2 amorphous carbon (post-oxidized sample, according to the manufacturer) and the Diesel particles (between 5.2·10 13 and 5.8·10 13 molecule/cm2), indicating a higher state of oxidation than for the other samples (between 1.3·10 12 and 3.7·10 12 molecule/cm2). The ratio of uptakes of CF3COOH and HCl inferred the presence of basic oxides on the particle surface, owing to the larger stability of the acetate compared to the chloride counter ion in the resulting pyrylium salt. The reactivity of the FS 101 amorphous carbon (3.7·10 15 molecule/cm2) and the hexane flame soot (between 1.9·10 15 and 2.7·10 15 molecule/cm2) towards O3 was very high, indicating the presence of a huge amount of oxidizable or reduced groups on the surface of these samples. Besides the quantification of surface functional groups, the kinetics of reactions between particles and probe gases has also been studied. The uptake coefficient γ0 was roughly correlated with the amount of probe gas taken up by the samples. Indeed, the presence of a high density of functional groups led to fast uptake of the probe gas. These different findings indicate that the particle surface appeared multi-functional, with the simultaneous presence of antagonistic functional groups which do not undergo internal chemical reactions, such as acid-base neutralization. Results also point to important differences in the surface reactivity of the samples, depending on the combustion conditions. The relative distribution of the surface functional groups may be a useful indicator for the state of oxidation and the reactivity of the particle surface.
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical, Particulate Matter, Carbon, Soot, Vehicle Emissions, Surface Properties,
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