Article: article from journal or magazin.
Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study.
European Journal of Epidemiology
Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990-2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985-2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia.
Adolescent, Air Pollutants/adverse effects, Air Pollution/adverse effects, Child, Child, Preschool, Environmental Exposure, Female, Humans, Incidence, Male, Motor Vehicles, Neoplasms/chemically induced, Neoplasms/epidemiology, Pregnancy, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Proportional Hazards Models, Residence Characteristics, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Switzerland/epidemiology, Vehicle Emissions/toxicity
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