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Early intracellular trafficking of Waddlia chondrophila in human macrophages.
Waddlia chondrophila is an obligate intracellular bacterium considered as a potential agent of abortion in both humans and bovines. This member of the order Chlamydiales multiplies rapidly within human macrophages and induces lysis of the infected cells. To understand how this Chlamydia-like micro-organism invades and proliferates within host cells, we investigated its trafficking within monocyte-derived human macrophages. Vacuoles containing W. chondrophila acquired the early endosomal marker EEA1 during the first 30 min following uptake. However, the live W. chondrophila-containing vacuoles never co-localized with late endosome and lysosome markers. Instead of interacting with the endosomal pathway, W. chondrophila immediately co-localized with mitochondria and, shortly after, with endoplasmic reticulum- (ER-) resident proteins such as calnexin and protein disulfide isomerase. The acquisition of mitochondria and ER markers corresponds to the beginning of bacterial replication. It is noteworthy that mitochondrion recruitment to W. chondrophila inclusions is prevented only by simultaneous treatment with the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton-disrupting agents nocodazole and cytochalasin D. In addition, brefeldin A inhibits the replication of W. chondrophila, supporting a role for COPI-dependent trafficking in the biogenesis of the bacterial replicating vacuole. W. chondrophila probably survives within human macrophages by evading the endocytic pathway and by associating with mitochondria and the ER. The intracellular trafficking of W. chondrophila in human macrophages represents a novel route that differs strongly from that used by other members of the order Chlamydiales.
Aborted Bovine Fetus, Necrosis-Factor-Alpha, Endoplasmic-Reticulum, Chlamydia-Trachomatis, Parachlamydia-Acanthamoebae, Order Chlamydiales, Axonal-Transport, Human Monocytes, Fam. Nov., Mitochondria
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