PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Low density lipoprotein signaling and pancreatic beta cells protection
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecineUniversité de LausanneUNIL - BugnonRue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111CH-1015 LausanneSUISSE
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SummaryLow-density lipoproteins (LDLs) have an important physiological role in organism transporting cholesterol and other fatty substances to target tissues. However, elevated LDL levels in the blood are associated with the formation of arterial plaques and consequently atherosclerosis. It is therefore important to characterize the intracellular pathways induced upon LDL stimulation as they might be involved in the pathological properties of these lipoproteins. It has been previously found that LDL stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts activates p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). This leads to cell spreading and increase in the wound healing capabilities of the cells. These two responses might occur within atherosclerotic plaques.The aim of this project is to reveal the missing links between LDL particle and activation of p38 MAPK kinase. As previously shown in our lab activation of p38 MAPK kinase by the LDL particles occur independently of classical LDL receptor (LDLR). In this study we have shown that scavenger receptor type Β class I (SR-BI) is responsible for the signal transduction from the LDLs to the p38 MAPK. We have also shown that Mitogen activated kinase kinases (MKKs) that can directly activate ρ 38 MAPK in these conditions are MKK3 and MKK6 but not MKK4. We have also tested some of the intermediate components of the pathway like Ras and PI3 kinase but found that they do not play a role.The data obtained in this study showed a part of molecular mechanism responsible for p38 MAPK activation and subsequent wound healing and can contribute to our knowledge on function of the fibroblasts in the development of the atherosclerotic plaques.Diabetes Mellitus is a condition caused by disordered metabolism of blood glucose level. It is one of the most commonly spread disease in the western world, with the incidence reaching 8% of population in United States. Two most common types of diabetes are type 1 and 2 that differs slightly in the mechanism of the development. However in the basis of both types lies the cell death of pancreatic beta cells. The aim of this work is to improve beta cells survival in different pathophysiological settings. This could be extrapolated to the conditions in which Diabetes develops in humans. We decided to use RasGAP- derived fragment Ν with its strong antiapoptotic effect in beta cells. In our lab we have demonstrated that in the mild stress conditions RasGAP can be cleaved by caspases at the position 455 producing two fragments, fragment Ν and fragment C. Fragment Ν exerts
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