Article: article from journal or magazin.
BAL9141, a novel extended-spectrum cephalosporin active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in treatment of experimental endocarditis.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
The therapeutic efficacy of BAL9141 (formerly Ro 63-9141), a novel cephalosporin with broad in vitro activity that also has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), was investigated in rats with experimental endocarditis. The test organisms were homogeneously methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL transformed with the penicillinase-encoding plasmid pI524 (COL Bla+) and homogeneously methicillin-resistant, penicillinase-producing isolate P8-Hom, selected by serial exposure of parent strain P8 to methicillin. The MICs of BAL9141 for these organisms (2 mg/liter) were low, and BAL9141was bactericidal in time-kill curve studies after 24 h of exposure to either two, four, or eight times the MIC. Rats with experimental endocarditis were treated in a three-arm study with a continuous infusion of BAL5788 (formerly Ro 65-5788), a carbamate prodrug of BAL9141, or with amoxicillin-clavulanate or vancomycin. The rats were administered BAL9141 to obtain steady-state target levels of 20, 10, and 5 mg of per liter or were administered either 1.2 g of amoxicillin-clavulanate (ratio 5:1) every 6 h or 1 g of vancomycin every 12 h at changing flow rates to simulate the pharmacokinetics produced in humans by intermittent intravenous treatment. Treatment was started 12 h after bacterial challenge and lasted for 3 days. BAL9141 was successful in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to either MRSA isolate COL Bla+ or MRSA isolate P8-Hom at the three targeted steady-state concentrations and sterilized >90% of cardiac vegetations (P < 0.005 versus controls; P < 0.05 versus amoxicillin-clavulanate and vancomycin treatment groups). These promising in vivo results with BAL9141 correlated with the high affinity of the drug for PBP 2a and its stability to penicillinase hydrolysis observed in vitro.
Animals, Bacterial Proteins, Carrier Proteins/metabolism, Cephalosporins/blood, Cephalosporins/pharmacology, Drug Stability, Endocarditis, Bacterial/blood, Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy, Hexosyltransferases, Methicillin Resistance, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase/metabolism, Penicillin-Binding Proteins, Penicillinase/metabolism, Peptidyl Transferases, Rats, Staphylococcal Infections/blood, Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy, Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome
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