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Importance clinique du caryotype en hématologie. [Clinical importance of karyotype in hematology.]
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift
Cytogenic analysis of leukemic cells has proven to be a mandatory part of the diagnosis of malignant hemopathies. Recurring clonal cytogenetic abnormalities may be divided into those exclusively associated with myeloid disorders, those uniquely observed in lymphoid diseases, and those detected in both myeloid and lymphoid hemopathies. Several of the common defects are characteristic of specific FAB types or subtypes and are associated with specific clinico pathologic syndromes and clinical complications. Cytogenetic abnormalities have served to define relatively homogeneous subsets of malignant hemopathies which are not evident from morphological and other available markers. Cytogenetic findings have been demonstrated to be powerful indicators in predicting clinical course and outcome in patients and in guiding their management. Given the significant progress made in the treatment of malignant hemopathies, it is very important to identify parameters which may be used to predict whether patients will respond favorably to standard therapies or if they are unlikely to do so and require alternative strategies, such as bone marrow transplantation. Cytogenetic studies have also provided important insights into the understanding of malignant transformation processes. In a number of recurring chromosome translocations characteristic of leukemias and lymphomas the genes that are located at the breakpoints have been identified. Molecular analysis has revealed that alteration in expression of these genes or in the properties of the encoded proteins resulting from the rearrangements plays an integral part in malignant transformation. Studies of clonality have suggested that several chromosome abnormalities may arise in pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells, whereas others may originate in cells of more restricted lineage. The author focuses first on the implications of the karyotype in the diagnosis and the prognosis of myeloproliferative syndromes, acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes, then on the interest of describing new clinical-cytogenetic associations. Finally, some of the recent results obtained in a cytogenetic study of myelodysplastic syndromes are discussed.
Acute Disease, Chromosome Aberrations, Chromosome Disorders, Hematologic Diseases, Humans, Karyotyping, Leukemia, Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Prognosis
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