Article: article from journal or magazin.
Synaptic modulation by neurotrophic factors: differential and synergistic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor.
Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Publication Status: ppublish
Extracellular application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) to developing neuromuscular junctions in Xenopus nerve-muscle cultures resulted in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) and in the amplitude of nerve-evoked synaptic currents. Analyses of the amplitude and time course of the SSCs suggest that these effects are attributable to elevation of presynaptic transmitter release. The actions of these two factors on the transmitter secretion process, however, are distinctly different. Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging showed that an increase in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) accompanied the synaptic potentiation by BDNF, whereas no change in [Ca2+]i was observed during synaptic potentiation by CNTF. Removing external Ca2+ also abolished the potentiating effect of BDNF but did not influence the CNTF effect. Moreover, the two factors exerted different effects on the short-term synaptic plasticity. Paired-pulse facilitation normally found at these synapses was reduced by BDNF but unaffected by CNTF; CNTF, but not BDNF, reduced the extent of synaptic depression during high-frequency tetanic stimulation. Finally, the potentiation effect of BDNF and CNTF on spontaneous transmitter release was additive when both factors were applied together to the synapse at saturating concentrations (100 ng/ml) and was highly synergistic when low doses (1 and 10 ng/ml) of both factors were used. These results suggest that because of their differential effects on the secretory machinery, BDNF and CNTF may act cooperatively in modulating the development and functioning of synapses.
Animals, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Cells, Cultured, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor, Nerve Growth Factors/pharmacology, Nerve Tissue Proteins/pharmacology, Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects, Synapses/drug effects, Synapses/physiology, Time Factors, Xenopus
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