Article: article from journal or magazin.
Connexin36 contributes to INS-1E cells survival through modulation of cytokine-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and AMPK activity.
Cell Death and Differentiation
Publication types: Journal ArticlePublication Status: ppublish
Cell-to-cell communication mediated by gap junctions made of Connexin36 (Cx36) contributes to pancreatic β-cell function. We have recently demonstrated that Cx36 also supports β-cell survival by a still unclear mechanism. Using specific Cx36 siRNAs or adenoviral vectors, we now show that Cx36 downregulation promotes apoptosis in INS-1E cells exposed to the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ) involved at the onset of type 1 diabetes, whereas Cx36 overexpression protects against this effect. Cx36 overexpression also protects INS-1E cells against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis, and alleviates the cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species, the depletion of the ER Ca(2+) stores, the CHOP overexpression and the degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. We further show that cytokines activate the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) in a NO-dependent and ER-stress-dependent manner and that AMPK inhibits Cx36 expression. Altogether, the data suggest that Cx36 is involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis within the ER and that Cx36 expression is downregulated following ER stress and subsequent AMPK activation. As a result, cytokine-induced Cx36 downregulation elicits a positive feedback loop that amplifies ER stress and AMPK activation, leading to further Cx36 downregulation. The data reveal that Cx36 plays a central role in the oxidative stress and ER stress induced by cytokines and the subsequent regulation of AMPK activity, which in turn controls Cx36 expression and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of insulin-producing cells.
Web of science
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