Inproceedings: An article in a conference proceedings.
Abstract (Abstract): shot summary in a article that contain essentials elements presented during a scientific conference, lecture or from a poster.
Asymmetry of Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia at Different Spatial Scales
Title of the conference
OHBM 2009, 15th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping
San Francisco, California, United States, June 18-23, 2009
Introduction: The interhemispheric asymmetries that originate from connectivity-related structuring of the cerebral cortex are compromised in schizophrenia (SZ). Recently, we have revealed the whole-head topography of EEG synchronization in SZ (Jalili et al. 2007; Knyazeva et al. 2008). Here we extended the analysis to assess the abnormality in the asymmetry of synchronization, which is further motivated by the evidence that the interhemispheric asymmetries suspected to be abnormal in SZ originate from the connectivity-related structuring of the cortex. Methods: Thirteen right-handed SZ patients and thirteen matched controls, participated in this study and the multichannel (128) EEGs were recorded for 3-5 minutes at rest. Then, Laplacian EEG (LEEG) were calculated using a 2-D spline. The LEEGs were analysis through calculating the power spectral density using Welch's average periodogram method. Furthermore, using a state-space based multivariate synchronization measure, S-estimator, we analyzed the correlate of the functional cortico-cortical connectivity in SZ patients compared to the controls. The values of S-estimator were obtained at three different special scales: first-order neighbors for each sensor location, second-order neighbors, and the whole hemisphere. The synchronization measures based on LEEG of alpha and beta bands were applied and tuned to various spatial scales including local, intraregional, and long-distance levels. To assess the between-group differences, we used a permutation version of Hotelling's T2 test. For correlation analysis, Spearman Rank Correlation was calculated. Results: Compared to the controls, who had rightward asymmetry at a local level (LEEG power), rightward anterior and leftward posterior asymmetries at an intraregional level (first- and second-order S-estimator), and rightward global asymmetry (hemispheric S-estimator), SZ patients showed generally attenuated asymmetry, the effect being strongest for intraregional synchronization. This deviation in asymmetry across the anterior-to-posterior axis is consistent with the cerebral form of the so-called Yakovlevian or anticlockwise cerebral torque. Moreover, the negative occipital and positive frontal asymmetry values suggest higher regional synchronization among the left occipital and the right frontal locations relative to their symmetrical counterparts. Correlation analysis linked the posterior intraregional and hemispheric abnormalities to the negative SZ symptoms, whereas the asymmetry of LEEG power appeared to be weakly coupled to clinical ratings. The posterior intraregional abnormalities of asymmetry were shown to increase with the duration of the disease. The tentative links between these findings and gross anatomical asymmetries, including the cerebral torque and gyrification pattern in normal subjects and SZ patients, are discussed. Conclusions: Overall, our findings reveal the abnormalities in the synchronization asymmetry in SZ patients and heavy involvement of the right hemisphere in these abnormalities. These results indicate that anomalous asymmetry of cortico-cortical connections in schizophrenia is amenable to electrophysiological analysis.
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