Article: article from journal or magazin.
Renal sodium handling in acute and chronic salt loading/depletion protocols: the confounding influence of acute water loading.
Journal of hypertension
Publication types: Clinical Trial ; Journal Article ; Randomized Controlled Trial ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't - Publication Status: ppublish
OBJECTIVES: Renal tubular sodium handling was measured in healthy subjects submitted to acute and chronic salt-repletion/salt-depletion protocols. The goal was to compare the changes in proximal and distal sodium handling induced by the two procedures using the lithium clearance technique. METHODS: In nine subjects, acute salt loading was obtained with a 2 h infusion of isotonic saline, and salt depletion was induced with a low-salt diet and furosemide. In the chronic protocol, 15 subjects randomly received a low-, a regular- and a high-sodium diet for 1 week. In both protocols, renal and systemic haemodynamics and urinary electrolyte excretion were measured after an acute water load. In the chronic study, sodium handling was also determined, based on 12 h day- and night-time urine collections. RESULTS: The acute and chronic protocols induced comparable changes in sodium excretion, renal haemodynamics and hormonal responses. Yet, the relative contribution of the proximal and distal nephrons to sodium excretion in response to salt loading and depletion differed in the two protocols. Acutely, subjects appeared to regulate sodium balance mainly by the distal nephron, with little contribution of the proximal tubule. In contrast, in the chronic protocol, changes in sodium reabsorption could be measured both in the proximal and distal nephrons. Acute water loading was an important confounding factor which increased sodium excretion by reducing proximal sodium reabsorption. This interference of water was particularly marked in salt-depleted subjects. CONCLUSION: Acute and chronic salt loading/salt depletion protocols investigate different renal mechanisms of control of sodium balance. The endogenous lithium clearance technique is a reliable method to assess proximal sodium reabsorption in humans. However, to investigate sodium handling in diseases such as hypertension, lithium should be measured preferably on 24 h or overnight urine collections to avoid the confounding influence of water.
Acute Disease, Adult, Blood Pressure, Chronic Disease, Diet, Sodium-Restricted, Diuretics, Furosemide, Humans, Hypertension, Renal, Kidney Tubules, Lithium, Male, Nephrons, Renal Circulation, Sodium, Dietary, Water
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