Article: article from journal or magazin.
Phosphatidylethanolamine critically supports internalization of cell-penetrating protein C inhibitor.
Journal of Cell Biology
Although their contribution remains unclear, lipids may facilitate noncanonical routes of protein internalization into cells such as those used by cell-penetrating proteins. We show that protein C inhibitor (PCI), a serine protease inhibitor (serpin), rapidly transverses the plasma membrane, which persists at low temperatures and enables its nuclear targeting in vitro and in vivo. Cell membrane translocation of PCI necessarily requires phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In parallel, PCI acts as a lipid transferase for PE. The internalized serpin promotes phagocytosis of bacteria, thus suggesting a function in host defense. Membrane insertion of PCI depends on the conical shape of PE and is associated with the formation of restricted aqueous compartments within the membrane. Gain- and loss-of-function mutations indicate that the transmembrane passage of PCI requires a branched cavity between its helices H and D, which, according to docking studies, precisely accommodates PE. Our findings show that its specific shape enables cell surface PE to drive plasma membrane translocation of cell-penetrating PCI.
Animals, Binding Sites, Biotin/metabolism, Blood Platelets/chemistry, Blood Platelets/metabolism, Cell Membrane/chemistry, Cell Membrane/metabolism, Cell Nucleus/metabolism, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect, Granulocytes/metabolism, HL-60 Cells, Humans, Iodine Radioisotopes/metabolism, Leukocytes/pathology, Leukocytes/ultrastructure, Mice, Mutation, Phosphatidylethanolamines/metabolism, Platelet Activation/drug effects, Protein Binding, Protein C Inhibitor/chemistry, Protein C Inhibitor/genetics, Recombinant Proteins/metabolism, Thrombin/pharmacology, Time Factors
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