Article: article from journal or magazin.
Canine distemper virus infection of primary hippocampal cells induces increase in extracellular glutamate and neurodegeneration.
Journal of Neurochemistry
The canine distemper virus (CDV) belongs to the Morbillivirus genus which includes important human pathogens like the closely related measles virus. CDV infection can reach the nervous system where it causes serious malfunctions. Although this pathology is well described, the molecular events in brain infection are still poorly understood. Here we studied infection in vitro by CDV using a model of dissociated cell cultures from newborn rat hippocampus. We used a recombinant CDV closely related to the neurovirulent A75/17 which also expresses the enhanced green fluorescent protein. We found that infected neurons and astrocytes could be clearly detected, and that infection spreads only slowly to neighboring cells. Interestingly, this infection causes a massive cell death of neurons, which includes also non-infected neurons. Antagonists of NMDA-type or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propinate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors could slow down this neuron loss, indicating an involvement of the glutamatergic system in the induction of cell death in infected and non-infected cells. Finally, we show that, following CDV infection, there is a steady increase in extracellular glutamate in infected cultures. These results indicate that CDV infection induces excitotoxic insults on neurons via glutamatergic signaling.
Animals, Animals, Newborn, Astrocytes/metabolism, Astrocytes/virology, Cell Death/physiology, Cells, Cultured, Cercopithecus aethiops, Distemper/metabolism, Distemper/physiopathology, Distemper Virus, Canine/pathogenicity, Distemper Virus, Canine/physiology, Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology, Extracellular Fluid/metabolism, Gliosis/metabolism, Gliosis/physiopathology, Glutamic Acid/metabolism, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Hippocampus/metabolism, Hippocampus/physiopathology, Nerve Degeneration/metabolism, Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology, Neurons/metabolism, Neurons/virology, Rats, Receptors, Glutamate/drug effects, Receptors, Glutamate/metabolism, Recombinant Proteins, Up-Regulation/physiology, Vero Cells
Web of science
Last modification date