Article: article from journal or magazin.
Cell-free reconstitution of vacuole membrane fragmentation reveals regulation of vacuole size and number by TORC1.
Molecular Biology of the Cell
Size and copy number of organelles are influenced by an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. We studied this equilibrium on vacuoles-the lysosomes of yeast. Vacuole fusion can readily be reconstituted and quantified in vitro, but it had not been possible to study fission of the organelle in a similar way. Here we present a cell-free system that reconstitutes fragmentation of purified yeast vacuoles (lysosomes) into smaller vesicles. Fragmentation in vitro reproduces physiological aspects. It requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p, V-ATPase pump activity, cytosolic proteins, and ATP and GTP hydrolysis. We used the in vitro system to show that the vacuole-associated TOR complex 1 (TORC1) stimulates vacuole fragmentation but not the opposing reaction of vacuole fusion. Under nutrient restriction, TORC1 is inactivated, and the continuing fusion activity then dominates the fusion/fission equilibrium, decreasing the copy number and increasing the volume of the vacuolar compartment. This result can explain why nutrient restriction not only induces autophagy and a massive buildup of vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolases, but also leads to a concomitant increase in volume of the vacuolar compartment by coalescence of the organelles into a single large compartment.
Cell-Free System/chemistry, GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism, Guanosine Triphosphate/chemistry, Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism, Hydrolysis, Intracellular Membranes/metabolism, Intracellular Membranes/ultrastructure, Membrane Fusion, Protein Phosphatase 2/metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism, Sirolimus/pharmacology, Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors, Transcription Factors/metabolism, Vacuoles/chemistry, Vacuoles/metabolism, Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
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