Article: article from journal or magazin.
Pancreatic-specific expression of the glucose transporter type 2 gene: identification of cis-elements and islet-specific trans-acting factors.
Publication types: Journal Article
A defect in glucose sensing of the pancreatic beta-cells has been observed in several animal models of type II diabetes and has been correlated with a reduced gene expression of the glucose transporter type 2 (Glut2). In a transgenic mouse model, expression of Glut2 antisense RNA in pancreatic beta-cells has recently been shown to be associated with an impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion and the development of diabetes. To identify factors that may be involved in the specific decrease of Glut2 in the beta-cells of the diabetic animal, an attempt was made to localize the cis-elements and trans-acting factors involved in the control of Glut2 expression in the endocrine pancreas. It was demonstrated by transient transfection studies that only 338 base pairs (bp) of the murine Glut2 proximal promoter are needed for reporter gene expression in pancreatic islet-derived cell lines, whereas no activity was detected in nonpancreatic cells. Three cis-elements, GTI, GTII, and GTIII, have been identified by DNAse I footprinting and gel retardation experiments within these 338 bp. GTI and GTIII bind distinct but ubiquitously expressed trans-acting factors. On the other hand, nuclear proteins specifically expressed in pancreatic cell lines interact with GTII, and their relative abundance correlates with endogenous Glut2 expression. These GTII-binding factors correspond to nuclear proteins of 180 and 90 kilodaltons as defined by Southwestern analysis. The 180-kilodalton factor is present in pancreatic beta-cell lines but not in an alpha-cell line. Mutation of the GTI or GTIII cis-elements decreases transcriptional activity directed by the 338-bp promoter, whereas mutation of GTII increases gene transcription. Thus negative and positive regulatory sequences are identified within the proximal 338 bp of the GLUT2 promoter and may participate in the islet-specific expression of the gene by binding beta-cell specific trans-acting factors.
Animals, Base Sequence, DNA Footprinting, Glucose Transporter Type 2, Islets of Langerhans/metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/genetics, Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/metabolism, Rats, Sequence Analysis, Trans-Activators/genetics, Transcriptional Activation, Tumor Cells, Cultured
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