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Selective neurodegeneration induced in rotation-mediated aggregate cell cultures by a transient switch to stationary culture conditions: a potential model to study ischemia-related pathogenic mechanisms.
Aggregating brain cell cultures at an advanced maturational stage (20-21 days in vitro) were subjected for 1-3 h to anaerobic (hypoxic) and/or stationary (ischemic) conditions. After restoration of the normal culture conditions, cell loss was estimated by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase as well as the irreversible decrease of cell type-specific enzyme activities, total protein and DNA content. Ischemia for 2 h induced significant neuronal cell death. Hypoxia combined with ischemia affected both neuronal and glial cells to different degrees (GABAergic neurons>cholinergic neurons>astrocytes). Hypoxic and ischemic conditions greatly stimulated the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, indicating increased glucose consumption. Furthermore, glucose restriction (5.5 mM instead of 25 mM) dramatically increased the susceptibility of neuronal and glial cells to hypoxic and ischemic conditions. Glucose media concentrations below 2 mM caused selective neuronal cell death in otherwise normal culture conditions. GABAergic neurons showed a particularly high sensitivity to glucose restriction, hypoxia, and ischemia. The pattern of ischemia-induced changes in vitro showed many similarities to in vivo findings, suggesting that aggregating brain cell cultures provide a useful in vitro model to study pathogenic mechanisms related to brain ischemia.
Animals, Brain Ischemia/pathology, Cell Aggregation/physiology, Cells, Cultured, Deoxyglucose/metabolism, Glucose/metabolism, Hypoxia, Brain/pathology, Immunohistochemistry, L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism, Models, Neurological, Nerve Degeneration, Neurons/pathology, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Rotation, Time Factors
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