Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Minocycline Promotes Remyelination in an In Vitro Model of Demyelination
Title of the conference
9th European Meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease
Paris, France, September 08-12, 2009
Brain inflammation plays a central role in numerous brain pathologies, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial cells and astrocytes are the effector cells of neuroinflammation. They can be activated by agents such as interferon-g (IFN-g) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Aggregating brain cultures exposed to a repeated treatment (3 fold) with IFN-g (50 U/ml) and LPS (5 ug/ml) were used as an in vitro model of demyelination. Demyelination could be due to either the direct effect of IFN-g and LPS on oligodendrocytes or the IFN-g and LPS-induced inflammatory response. We investigated the involvement of microglial reactivity in demylination and remyelination by using minocycline, an antibiotic known to block microglial reactivity. Changes in myelination were examined by measuring the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) at the mRNA level by quantitative RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. To evaluate brain inflammatory reactions, microglia were stained with isolectin B4 (IB4), quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The repeated treatment with IFN-g and LPS caused demyelination, as indicated by a decrease in MBP and MOG expression. It also activated microglial cells, and up-regulated TNF-a, IL-6, and iNOS expression. Although minocycline did not affect the IFN-g- and LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-a, IL-6, it decreased the number of IB4-labeled microglial cells. Furthermore, minocycline did not prevent demyelination, whereas it strongly increased MBP expression one week after the end of the demyelinating treatment. In conclusion, the present results show that minocycline promoted remyelination after IFN-g- and LPS-induced demyelination, presumably due to its effects on microglial cells.
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