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Prospective analysis of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations and EGFR copy number in patients (pts) with locally advanced rectal cancer: A translational substudy of a clinical trial (SAKK 41/07) evaluating the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) with or without panitumumab
Title of the conference
Jahrestagung der Deutschen, Österreichischen und Schweizerischen Gesellschaften für Hämatologie und Onkologie
Basel, Schweiz, 30 September - 04 Oktober, 2011
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Background: Prognostic and predictive markers are of great importance for future study designs and essential for the interpretation of clinical trials incorporating an EGFR-inhibitor. The current study prospectively assessed and validated KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in rectal cancer patients screened for the trial SAKK41/07 of concomitant preoperative radio-chemotherapy with or without panitumumab.Methods: Macrodissection was performed on pretreatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsy tissue sections to arrive at a minimum of 50% of tumor cells. DNA was extracted with the Maxwell 16 FFPE Tissue LEV DNA purification kit. After PCR amplification, mutations were identified by pyrosequencing. We prospectively analysed pretreatment biopsy material from 149 rectal cancer pts biopsies for KRAS (exon 2 codon 12 [2-12] and 13 [2-13], exon 3 codon 59 [3-59]) and 61 [3-61], exon 4 codon 117 [4-117] and 146 [4-146]). Sixty-eight pts (KRASwt exon 2, 3 only) were further analysed for BRAF (exon 15 codon 600) and PIK3CA (exon 9 codon 542, 545 and 546, exon 20 codon 1043 [20-1043] and 1047 [20-1047]) mutations, and EGFR copy number by qPCR. For the calculation of the EGFR copy number, we used KRAS copy number as internal reference standard. The calculation was done on the basis of the two standard curves relative quantification method.Results: In 149 screened pts with rectal cancer, the prevalence of KRAS mutations was 36%. Among the 68 pts enrolled in SAKK 41/07 based on initially presumed KRASwt status (exon 2/codons 12+13), 18 pts (26%) had a total of 23 mutations in the RAS/PIK3CA-pathways upon validation analysis. Twelve pts had a KRAS mutation, 7 pts had a PIK3CA mutation, 3 pts had a NRAS mutation, 1 patient a BRAF mutation. Surprisingly, five of these pts had double- mutations, including 4 pts with KRAS plus PIK3CA mutations, and 1 pt with NRAS plus PIK3CA mutations. The median normalized EGFR copy number was 1. Neither mutations of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA, nor EGFR copy number were statistically associated with the primary study endpoint pCR (pathological complete regression).Conclusions: The prevalence of KRAS mutations in rectal and in colon cancer appears to be similar. BRAF mutations are rare; PIK3CA mutations are more common (10%). EGFR copy number is not increased in rectal cancer. A considerable number or KRAS exon 2 wt tumors harbored KRAS exon 3+4 mutations. Further study is needed to determine if KRAS testing should include exons 2-4.
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