Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Population pharmacokinetics of imatinib in CML and GIST patients under long-term treatment
Title of the conference
73e Assemblée annuelle de la Société Suisse de Médecine Interne (SSMI)
Bâle, Suisse, 25-27 mai 2007
Swiss Medical Forum = Forum Médical Suisse
Imatinib (Glivec®) has transformed the treatment and short-term prognosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and gastro-intestinal stromal tumour (GIST). However, the treatment must be taken indefinitely, it is not devoid of inconvenience and toxicity. Moreover, resistance or escape from disease control occur in a significant number of patients. Imatinib is a substrate of the cytochromes P450 CYP3A4/5 and of the multidrug transporter P glycoprotein (product of the MDR1 gene). Considering the large inter-individual differences in the expression and function of those systems, the disposition and clinical activity of imatinib can be expected to vary widely among patients, calling for dosage individualisation. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the average pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing the disposition of imatinib in the target population, to assess their inter-individual variability, and to identify influential factors affecting them. A total of 321 plasma concentrations, taken at various sampling times after latest dose, were measured in 59 patients receiving Glivec® at diverse regimens, using a validated chromatographic method (HPLC-UV) developed for this study. The results were analysed by non-linear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM). A one- compartment model with first-order absorption appeared appropriate to describe the data, with an average apparent clearance of 12.4 l/h, a distribution volume of 268 l and an absorption constant of 0.47 h-1. The clearance was affected by body weight, age and sex. No influences of interacting drugs were found. DNA samples were used for pharmacogenetic explorations. The MDR1 polymorphism 3435C>T appears to affect the disposition of imatinib. Large inter-individual variability remained unexplained by the demographic covariates considered, both on clearance (40%) and distribution volume (71%). Together with intra-patient variability (34%), this translates into an 8-fold width of the 90%-prediction interval of plasma concentrations expected under a fixed dosing regimen ! This is a strong argument to further investigate the possible usefulness of a therapeutic drug monitoring programme for imatinib. It may help to individualise the dosing regimen before overt disease progression or observation of treatment toxicity, thus improving both the long-term therapeutic effectiveness and tolerability of this drug.
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