Article: article from journal or magazin.
Lifetime and intergenerational fitness consequences of harmful male interactions for female lizards.
Male mating behaviors harmful to females have been described in a wide range of species. However, the direct and indirect fitness consequences of harmful male behaviors have been rarely quantified for females and their offspring, especially for long-lived organisms under natural conditions. Here, lifetime and intergenerational consequences of harmful male interactions were investigated in female common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) using field experiments. We exposed females to male harm by changing the population sex ratio from a normal female-biased to an experimental male-biased sex ratio during the first experimental year. Thereafter, females and their first generation of offspring were monitored during two additional years in a common garden with a female-biased sex ratio. We found strong immediate fitness costs and lower lifetime reproductive success in females subjected to increased male exposure. The immediate fitness costs were partly mitigated by direct compensatory responses after exposure to male excess, but not by indirect benefits through offspring growth, offspring survival, or mating success of offspring. These results support recent empirical findings showing that the direct costs of mating are not outweighed by indirect benefits.
Animals, Choice Behavior, Female, Lizards/physiology, Male, Population Dynamics, Reproduction/physiology, Selection, Genetic, Sex Factors, Sex Ratio, Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
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