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Reactivity of alpha 1-antitrypsin mutants against proteolytic enzymes of the kallikrein-kinin, complement, and fibrinolytic systems.
Journal of Biological Chemistry
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Increased extracellular proteolysis because of unregulated activation of blood coagulation, complement, and fibrinolysis is observed in thrombosis, shock, and inflammation. In the present study, we have examined whether the plasma kallikrein-kinin system, the classical pathway of complement, and the fibrinolytic system could be inhibited by alpha 1-antitrypsin reactive site mutants. Wild-type alpha 1-antitrypsin contains a Met residue at P1 (position 358), the central position of the reactive center. It did not inhibit plasma kallikrein, beta-factor XIIa, plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), or urokinase. In contrast, these serine proteases were inhibited by alpha 1-antitrypsin Arg358. For the inhibition of C1s, a double mutant having Arg358 and a Pro----Ala mutation at P2 (position 357) was required. This double modification was made because C1-inhibitor, the natural inhibitor of C1s, has Arg and Ala residues at positions P1 and P2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, the natural inhibitor of t-PA, also has Arg and Ala residues at positions P1 and P2. In a purified system, alpha 1-antitrypsin Ala357-Arg358 was 150-fold less efficient against C1s than C1-inhibitor and 27,000-fold less efficient against t-PA than plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. In plasma, 2.3 microM alpha 1-antitrypsin Ala357-Arg358 reduced by 65% the formation of a complex between kallikrein and C1-inhibitor following activation of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by kaolin. Furthermore, after supplementation by 2.0 microM alpha 1-antitrypsin Ala357-Arg358, zymographic analysis showed that the majority of the free t-PA of normal plasma formed a bimolecular complex with the double mutant. In contrast, 3.4 microM alpha 1-antitrypsin Ala357-Arg358 did not prevent the activation of the classical pathway of complement observed when normal serum is supplemented with anti-C1-inhibitor F(ab')2 fragment. These results demonstrate that alpha 1-antitrypsin Ala357-Arg358 has therapeutic potential for disorders with unregulated activation of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system; however, the double mutant is not an efficient inhibitor for the classical pathway of complement.
Amino Acid Sequence, Complement Inactivator Proteins, Fibrinolysis/drug effects, Hemolysis/drug effects, Humans, Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors, Kinins/antagonists & inhibitors, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Peptide Hydrolases/blood, Serpins/pharmacology, alpha 1-Antitrypsin/genetics, alpha 1-Antitrypsin/pharmacology
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