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The effects of rapid infusions of saline and mannitol on cerebral blood volume and intracranial pressure in dogs
Canadian Anaesthetists Society Journal
Date de publication
Journal Article --- Old month value: Sep
The role of osmotic brain dehydration in the early reduction of intracranial pressure (ICP) following mannitol administration has recently been questioned and a decrease in cerebral blood volume (CBV) proposed as the mechanism of action. To evaluate this hypothesis, relative CBV changes before and after mannitol infusion were determined by collimated gamma counting across the biparietal diameter of the exposed skull in six dogs. Red blood cells were labelled with chromium-51. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), total blood volume (TBV), ICP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), haematocrit and osmolality were serially measured after infusions of 10 ml X kg-1 of normal saline (control study) and of 20 per cent mannitol (mannitol study). The solutions were administered over a two-minute period; a 30-minute equilibration period intervened between the saline and mannitol infusions. We demonstrated that the mannitol infusion was associated with significant increases in relative CBV (25 per cent), ICP (7 mmHg), CVP (11 cm H2O), and TBV (50 per cent). MAP declined significantly (14 per cent) after mannitol infusion. The administration of saline, although associated with an increase in TBV (18 per cent), was not associated with any significant change in CBV, ICP, MAP or CVP. The increase in relative CBV persisted for 15 minutes after mannitol infusion, while the ICP returned to control within five minutes and continued to decrease. This study supports the fact that after rapid mannitol infusion, ICP begins to decrease only once the dehydrating effect has counteracted the increase in brain bulk caused by the increase in cerebral blood volume.
Animals Blood Pressure/drug effects Blood Volume/*drug effects Cerebrovascular Circulation/*drug effects Dogs Hematocrit Infusions, Parenteral Intracranial Pressure/*drug effects Mannitol/administration & dosage/*pharmacology Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage/*pharmacology Time Factors
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