Article: article from journal or magazin.
Release of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by neuroendocrine-differentiated LNCaP cells sustains the proliferation and survival of prostate cancer cells.
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPublication Status: epublish. PDF type: Research
The acquisition of neuroendocrine (NE) characteristics by prostate cancer (PCa) cells is closely related to tumour progression and hormone resistance. The mechanisms by which NE cells influence PCa growth and progression are not fully understood. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in oncogenic processes, and MIF serum levels correlate with aggressiveness of PCa. Here, we investigated the regulation and the functional consequences of MIF expression during NE transdifferentiation of PCa cells. NE differentiation (NED) of LNCaP cells, initiated either by increasing intracellular levels of cAMP or by culturing cells in an androgen-depleted medium, was associated with markedly increased MIF release. Yet, intracellular MIF protein and mRNA levels and MIF gene promoter activity decreased during NED of LNCaP cells, suggesting that NED favours MIF release despite decreasing MIF synthesis. Adenoviral-mediated forced MIF expression in NE-differentiated LNCaP cells increased cell proliferation without affecting the expression of NE markers. Addition of exogenous recombinant MIF to LNCaP and PC-3 cells stimulated the AKT and ERK1/2 signalling pathways, the expression of genes involved in PCa, as well as proliferation and resistance to paclitaxel and thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these data provide evidence that increased MIF release during NED in PCa may facilitate cancer progression or recurrence, especially following androgen deprivation. Thus, MIF could represent an attractive target for PCa therapy.
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