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Intravital microscopy reveals endothelial dysfunction in resistance arterioles in Angiotensin II-induced hypertension.
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Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
It is known that hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and that Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a key player in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We aimed to elucidate whether endothelial dysfunction is a specific feature of Ang II-mediated hypertension or a common finding of hypertension, independently of underlying etiology. We studied endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation in precapillary resistance arterioles and in various large-caliber conductance arteries in wild-type mice with Ang II-dependent hypertension (2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) model) or Ang II-independent (volume overload) hypertension (1-kidney 1-clip model (1K1C)). Normotensive sham mice were used as controls. Aortic mechanical properties were also evaluated. Intravital microscopy of precapillary arterioles revealed a significantly impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in 2K1C mice compared with sham mice, as quantified by the ratio of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced over S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP)-induced vasorelaxation (2K1C: 0.49±0.12 vs. sham: 0.87±0.11, P=0.018). In contrast, the ACh/SNAP ratio in volume-overload hypertension 1K1C mice was not significantly different from sham mice, indicating no specific endothelial dysfunction (1K1C: 0.77±0.27 vs. sham: 0.87±0.11, P=0.138). Mechanical aortic wall properties and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, assessed ex vivo in rings of large-caliber conductance (abdominal and thoracic aorta, carotid and femoral arteries), were not different between 2K1C, 1K1C and sham mice. Endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of Ang II- but not volume-overload-mediated hypertension. This occurs exclusively at the level of precapillary arterioles and not in conduit arteries. Our findings, if confirmed in clinical studies, will provide a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension.
Acetylcholine/blood, Angiotensin II/pharmacology, Animals, Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology, Arteries/physiopathology, Arterioles/drug effects, Arterioles/physiopathology, Biomechanics, Blood Pressure/drug effects, Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects, Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology, Heart Rate/drug effects, Hypertension, Renovascular/physiopathology, Mice, Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology, Renin/blood, S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine/pharmacology, Vascular Resistance/drug effects, Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology
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