Article: article from journal or magazin.
Glutamate-induced release of the nitric oxide precursor, arginine, from glial cells.
European Journal of Neuroscience
Publication types: In Vitro ; Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPublication Status: ppublish
Arginine, the nitric oxide precursor, is predominantly localized in glial cells, whereas the constitutive nitric oxide synthase is mainly found in neurons. Therefore, a transfer of arginine from glial cells to neurons is needed to replenish the neuronal precursor pool. This is further supported by the finding that arginine is released upon selective pathway stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the mechanism underlying this glial-neuronal interaction by analysing the effect of glutamate receptor agonists on the extracellular [3H]arginine level in cerebellar and cortical slices and in cultures of either cortical astroglial cells or neurons. We present data indicating that arginine is released from cerebellar and cortical slices and astroglial cell cultures upon activation of ionotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Glutamate had no effect on the extracellular [3H]arginine level in neuronal cultures. Moreover, the effect of glutamate in cerebellar slices was tetrodotoxin-insensitive, and the calcium ionophore A23187 evoked the release of [3H]arginine from astroglial cell cultures. Thus, nitric oxide synthesis and nitric oxide transmission may be based on the glial-neuronal transfer of arginine which is induced by activation of excitatory amino acid receptors on glial cells.
Animals, Arginine/metabolism, Astrocytes/metabolism, Brain/cytology, Brain/metabolism, Cells, Cultured, Cerebellum/cytology, Cerebellum/metabolism, Cerebral Cortex/cytology, Cerebral Cortex/metabolism, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/pharmacology, Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology, Glutamic Acid/pharmacology, Neuroglia/drug effects, Neuroglia/metabolism, Nitric Oxide/metabolism, Rats, Rats, Inbred Strains, Receptors, Glutamate/metabolism, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/agonists, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/antagonists & inhibitors
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