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Rôle des oligo-éléments et des vitamines en nutrition périopératoire [Role of trace elements and vitamins in peri-operative nutrition].
Annales Françaises d'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
14 Suppl 2
Publication types: English Abstract ; Guideline ; Journal Article ; Meta-Analysis ; Practice Guideline
Publication Status: ppublish
Publication Status: ppublish
The micronutriment requirements, whether trace elements (inorganic) or vitamins (organic), are tightly linked to the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, since they are involved in all metabolic pathways as cofactors. The micronutriments also have major immunological, endocrinological and antioxydant functions. Especially in the surgical patient, individual requirements may vary considerably and will be particularly increased in case of prior deficiency, anabolic states, or increased losses (burns, diarrhoea, gastric aspiration, intestinal fistulae, alcoholism, use of renal replacement techniques). In some of these settings, the micronutriment requirements will be independent from the macronutriments: this has been demonstrated for burns and intestinal fistulae. In the case of depletion prior to surgery, an isolated supplementation may be required without starting a proper nutrition. In general, micronutriment supplements will have to be started upon initiation of any artificial nutrition. After elective surgery and in absence of specific losses, the micronutriment requirements will be linked to the metabolic state of the patient and to the energy-protein intakes. This is most striking for the vitamin B group, where the requirements are indicated in mg per 1000 kcal. Vitamins A and E are also at risk in the surgical patient. Recommended micronutriment supplements have been revised in 1994. Some trace element deficiencies (Se, Cr, Mo) can initiate very serious complications and will require special caution in the perioperative period. Other deficiencies (Cu, Zn) result in more slowly evolving clinical pictures, with lesser life-threatening potential, resulting in infections and prolonged wound healing. In such cases, multi-elementary supplements are inadequate, and single element solutions supplements are required. All the micronutriments are characterized by a dose-response curve. The quantity avoiding biochemical dysfunctioning in human pathological situations has not yet been established, and it is unsatisfactory to merely compensate for the losses. This notion of biochemical dysfunctioning phase preceeding the clinical deficiency syndrome is in investigation for many nutriments, especially as the importance of some micronutriments, such as Se and vitamin E, in maintaining antioxidant defences is clearly established. The potential for preventing free radical induced overproduction of cytokines by means of nutritional strategy and enhanced antioxidant defences clearly exists, and is only at an early phase of investigation in patients. The future will be marked by the development of nutritional pharmacology based on pathology-specific micronutriment supplements.
Humans, Nutritional Requirements, Nutritional Status, Postoperative Care/methods, Trace Elements/administration & dosage, Vitamins/administration & dosage
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