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Levofloxacin versus ciprofloxacin, flucloxacillin, or vancomycin for treatment of experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-susceptible or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Levofloxacin is the L isomer of ofloxacin, a racemic mixture in which the L stereochemical form carries the antimicrobial activity. Levofloxacin is more active than former quinolones against gram-positive bacteria, making it potentially useful against such pathogens. In this study, levofloxacin was compared to ciprofloxacin, flucloxacillin, and vancomycin for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. The four test organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, the levofloxacin MICs for the organisms were low (0.12 to 0.25 mg/liter), and the organisms were killed in vitro by drug concentrations simulating both the peak and trough levels achieved in human serum (5 and 0.5 mg/liter, respectively) during levofloxacin therapy. Rats with aortic endocarditis were treated for 3 days. Antibiotics were injected with a programmable pump to simulate the kinetics of either levofloxacin (350 mg orally once a day), ciprofloxacin (750 mg orally twice a day), flucloxacillin (2 g intravenously four times a day), or vancomycin (1 g intravenously twice a day). Levofloxacin tended to be superior to ciprofloxacin in therapeutic experiments (P = 0.08). More importantly, levofloxacin did not select for resistance in the animals, in contrast to ciprofloxacin. The lower propensity of levofloxacin than ciprofloxacin to select for quinolone resistance was also clearly demonstrated in vitro. Finally, the effectiveness of this simulation of oral levofloxacin therapy was at least equivalent to that of standard treatment for MSSA or MRSA endocarditis with either flucloxacillin or vancomycin. This is noteworthy, because oral antibiotics are not expected to succeed in the treatment of severe staphylococcal infections. These good results obtained with animals suggest that levofloxacin might deserve consideration for further study in the treatment of infections due to ciprofloxacin-susceptible staphylococci in humans.
Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use, Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology, Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use, Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology, Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use, Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy, Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology, Floxacillin/pharmacology, Floxacillin/therapeutic use, Humans, Methicillin Resistance, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Ofloxacin/pharmacology, Ofloxacin/therapeutic use, Penicillins/pharmacology, Penicillins/therapeutic use, Rats, Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy, Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects, Vancomycin/pharmacology, Vancomycin/therapeutic use
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