A Master's thesis.
Master (thesis) (master)
Wandering, verbally and physically abusive behaviour and their relation with pain in nursing homes residents
Von Gunten A.
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Number of pages
Backgrounds:¦Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include, among others, hallucinations, delusions, depression, euphoria, agitation, aggression, sexual desinhibition, sleep disturbances, and apathy (1). To our knowledge, surprisingly few studies looked into the possible association between pain and BPSD in nursing home residents. Given this dearth of studies, we wondered whether or not there is an association, in nursing home residents, between pain and BPSD, in particular wandering as well as verbally and physically abusive behaviour, and whether or not this possible association changes with the degree of cognitive impairment.¦Method:¦All nursing home residents in the three Swiss cantons Aargau, Basel-City, and Solothurn (corresponding to 13.5%¦of the total Swiss population) receive a Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS)¦assessment within the first two weeks upon entry. This yielded a total sample of 16'430 nursing home residents considering that the residents' assessment took place between 1997 and 2007 and that we only took into account the admission RAI-MDS assessment. Only residents for whom data on pain was recorded were included in the study (n = 16'183).¦Results:¦Wandering correlated significantly with pain although the effect size was small (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.052; p = 0.000), a result very similar to that found for VAB (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.034; p = 0.000) and PAB (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.043; p = 0.000). Likewise, using linear regression analyses, pain was very significantly associated with any of the three BPSD considered, but it predicted astonishingly little of the¦variance observed (wandering: B = 0.036; p = 0.000; R2 = 0.002; VAB: B = 0.021; p = 0.000; R2 = 0.001 PAB: B = 0.012; p = 0.000; R2 = 0.001). The interaction of pain and cognition had a significant effect on the three BPSD, suggesting that cognition was a moderator of the relationship between pain and all three behaviours.¦Conclusion:¦Wandering behaviours, VAB and PAB seem to be predicted by many factors. Although pain predicts only a small part of variance of these behaviours, it still remains important to recognise and treat pain in order to reduce these behaviours at least a little both in intensity and frequency. Given the dearth of studies and their somewhat contradictory results, further studies ought to investigate the role, the type and localisation of pain might play on the expression of different BPSD or how residents suffering from dementia perceive pain.
pain, cognitive impairment, BPSD, nursing homes
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