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Decreased binding of HIV-1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide following plasma membrane fluidization of CD4+ cells by phenytoin.
Plasma membrane fluidity of intact peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of phenytoin-treated nonepileptic patients and phenytoin-treated CD4+ lymphoid cells H9 and K37 was determined by fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Anisotropy values of the membrane probe 6-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid were decreased in all cell types as compared with controls, indicating increased plasma membrane fluidity of phenytoin-treated cells. Specific binding of 125I-labeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to its cellular receptor CD4 on PBL was decreased in PBL of phenytoin-treated patients as compared with untreated, healthy subjects. Adsorption of a different ligand to the CD4 receptor on PBL, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), was likewise abolished to PBL of phenytoin-treated patients and phenytoin-treated CD4+ H9 and K37 cells, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Subsequent HIV-1 infection of phenytoin-treated H9 and K37 cells was reduced as measured by indirect immunofluorescence and p24 antigen production. These data indicate that CD4 receptor availability for VIP and HIV-1 was reduced in phenytoin-treated cells. Using the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33258, we examined cell cycle phase distributions of HIV-1 adsorbing and nonadsorbing H9 cells, as separated by flow cytometry. The majority of HIV-1 adsorbing cells were found to be in the G2/M phase, while nonadsorbing cells were mainly in the G0/G1 phase, during which plasma membrane fluidity is supposed to be increased. This study indicates that plasma membrane fluidization by phenytoin may serve to disrupt CD4 receptor function and emphasizes the impact of plasma membrane properties on HIV-1 adsorption and infection.
Adsorption, Antigens, CD4/metabolism, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism, Cell Cycle, Cell Membrane/drug effects, Cell Membrane/metabolism, Cells, Cultured, Fluorescence Polarization, HIV Infections/physiopathology, HIV-1/metabolism, Humans, Membrane Fluidity/drug effects, Phenytoin/pharmacology, Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone/metabolism, Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/metabolism
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