Comparative efficacy of daptomycin, vancomycin, and cloxacillin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in rats and role of test conditions in this determination

Détails

ID Serval
serval:BIB_3FA65A3DE45A
Type
Article: article d'un périodique ou d'un magazine.
Collection
Publications
Titre
Comparative efficacy of daptomycin, vancomycin, and cloxacillin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in rats and role of test conditions in this determination
Périodique
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Auteur(s)
Cantoni  L., Glauser  M. P., Bille  J.
ISSN
0066-4804
Statut éditorial
Publié
Date de publication
12/1990
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
34
Numéro
12
Pages
2348-53
Notes
Comparative Study
Journal Article --- Old month value: Dec
Résumé
The in vivo efficacy of daptomycin, a new cell wall-active anti-gram-positive-bacterial agent, was compared to those of cloxacillin and vancomycin in a rat model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were used. When therapy was initiated early (8 h) after infection, at the time when valvular bacterial counts were relatively low (approximately 10(6) CFU/g of vegetation), 3 days of therapy was found to be effective against the MSSA strains whatever the antibiotic regimen. In contrast, when the onset of therapy was delayed up to 15 h after infection, so that higher bacterial counts could develop on the valves (approximately 10(9) CFU/g of vegetation), a longer period of treatment (6 days) was required to cure infection. Under these conditions after 3 days of therapy, daptomycin was more effective than cloxacillin and vancomycin against the MSSA strains. Similarly, daptomycin showed a greater activity than vancomycin against the MRSA strain after 3 days of treatment, but after 6 days both antibiotics were equally effective. Decreasing doses of daptomycin showed decreasing activity: 10 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h (q12h) was better than 5 mg/kg q12h, whereas 5 mg/kg q24h (providing drug levels in blood detectable only during the first 12 h) failed to cure infection. In vitro, daptomycin was highly bactericidal at high concentrations (25 and 60 micrograms/ml, corresponding to peak levels in serum after doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, respectively) and bacteriostatic at lower concentrations (0.5 to 2.5 micrograms/ml, corresponding to trough levels in serum). In conclusion, against low-bacterial-count S. aureus endocarditis, daptomycin showed an efficacy similar to those of vancomycin and cloxacillin. Against high-bacterial-count S. aureus endocarditis, daptomycin showed a higher bactericidal activity than cloxacillin (against the MSSA strains) and vancomycin (against both the MSSA and MRSA strains).
Mots-clé
Animals Cloxacillin/blood/*therapeutic use Daptomycin Endocarditis, Bacterial/*drug therapy/microbiology Female Microbial Sensitivity Tests Peptides/blood/therapeutic use Rats Rats, Inbred Strains Staphylococcal Infections/*drug therapy/microbiology Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects Vancomycin/blood/*therapeutic use
Pubmed
Web of science
Création de la notice
11/02/2008 13:40
Dernière modification de la notice
03/03/2018 16:25
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