Article: article from journal or magazin.
The maintenance of gynodioecy and androdioecy in a metapopulation
Males and females are at a selective disadvantage relative to hermaphrodites (cosexuals) in species with a colonizing habit, as only cosexuals are able to establish new colonies on their own. The implications of this disadvantage are assessed by means of a computer model of metapopulation dynamics, in which individual colonies are established through different rates of immigration and suffer different rates of local extinction. Results are given for simulations of an island model, a stepping-stone model, and for a partial analysis of the island model with simplifying assumptions. It is shown that: (1) unisexual frequencies in a metapopulation can be reasonably approximated by a linear function of the logarithm of the ratio of the immigration rate to the colony extinction rate; (2) metapopulation dynamics favor the maintenance of females (gynodioecy) over males (androdioecy) with cosexuals when they would otherwise be equally likely in a panmictic situation; (3) the way in which extinction and immigration rates affect unisexual frequencies at metapopulation equilibrium interacts with whether sterility is determined by a dominant or a recessive allele; and (4) unisexual frequencies are affected in a qualitatively similar way by the dynamics of a metapopulation when cosexuals are self-incompatible to when they are self-compatible, although only in the former case are high frequencies of unisexuals maintained when extinction and colonization rates approach the threshold at which the metapopulation goes extinct. These results are discussed with reference to existing data from species with nuclear male or female sterility.
Baker's Law, cellular automata, computer model, dioecy, dispersal, extinction, reproductive self-incompatibility
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