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On-pump beating heart coronary surgery for high risk patients requiring emergency multiple coronary artery bypass grafting.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegic arrest remains the method of choice for patients requiring standard myocardial revascularization. Therefore, very high-risk patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, onset of cardiac decompensation and requiring emergency multiple myocardial revascularization, can have a poor outcome. The on-pump beating heart technique can reduce the mortality and the morbidity in such a selected group of patients and this report describes our clinical experience. METHODS: Out of 290 patients operated for CABG from January 2005 to January 2006, 25 (8.6%) selected high-risk patients suffering from life threatening coronary syndrome (mean age 69 +/- 7 years) and requiring emergency multiple myocardial revascularization, underwent on-pump beating heart surgery. The mean pre-operative left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was 27 +/- 8%. The majority of them (88%) suffered of tri-vessel coronary disease and 6 (24%) had a left main stump disease. Nine patients (35%) were on severe cardiac failure and seven among them (28%) received a pre-operative intra-aortic balloon pump. The pre-operative EuroScore rate was equal or above 8 in 18 patients (73%). RESULTS: All patients underwent on-pump-beating heart coronary revascularization. The mean number of graft/patient was 2.9 +/- 0.6 and the internal mammary artery was used in 23 patients (92%). The mean CPB time was 84 +/- 19 minutes. Two patients died during the recovery stay in the intensive care unit, and there were no postoperative myocardial infarctions between the survivors. Eight patients suffered of transitorily renal failure and 1 patient developed a sternal wound infection. The mean hospital stay was 12 +/- 7 days. The follow-up was complete for all 23 patients survived at surgery and the mean follow-up time was 14 +/- 5 months. One patient died during the follow-up for cardiac arrest and 2 patients required an implantable cardiac defibrillator. One year after surgery they all had a standard trans-thoracic echocardiogram showing a mean LVEF rate of 36 +/- 11.8%. CONCLUSION: Standard on-pump arrested heart coronary surgery has higher mortality and morbidity in emergencies. The on-pump beating heart myocardial revascularization seems to be a valid alternative for the restricted and selected cohort of patients suffering from life threatening coronary syndrome and requiring multiple emergency CABG.
Aged, Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump, Echocardiography, Electrocardiography, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Morbidity, Myocardial Ischemia, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Stroke Volume, Survival Rate, Switzerland, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome
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