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Epidemiologie der Osteoporose. [The epidemiology of osteoporosis].
Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
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Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass, micro architectural impairment of bone tissue, and a subsequent in crease in fracture risk. Fractures or the vertebrae and distal forearm, as well as the proximal femur, or hip fracture, are included. Hip fracture is associated with high mortality, morbidity and medical expenses. There is a dramatic increase in the incidence of hip fracture with age. Hip fracture incidence is 350 times higher in women aged 85 years and over comparatively to women between 35 and 44 years of age. In recent studies in Switzerland, it was observed that the annual age adjusted incidence rate of hip fracture was comparable with similar rates for white population in industrialized countries, although in men the rates were relatively high. Among the major risk factors for osteoporosis are age, female gender, white and Asian race, and menopause. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy reduces bone resorption. Family history of osteoporosis, frail constitution, as well as excessive alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, chronic insufficient nutritional calcium intake and physical inactivity are other risk factors. A cardinal element is the peak bone mass reached in the third or fourth decade of life. Independently of osteoporosis, falls are a key agent in fractures; several medical conditions and drugs increase the risk of falling. There is an enormous social and financial cost of osteoporosis; the annual cost of medical treatment only for hip fracture is close to Fr. 200 million in Switzerland. The burden of osteoporosis is likely to increase in the future because of the demographic aging of the population unless large scale preventive interventions are undertaken.
Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Female, Fractures, Bone/etiology, Hip Fractures/etiology, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Osteoporosis/complications, Osteoporosis/epidemiology, Risk Factors, Switzerland/epidemiology
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