Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Novel biomarkers to predict response and prognosis in localized bladder cancer.
Urologic Clinics of North America
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review Publication Status: ppublishDocument Type: Review
This review summarizes recent developments in diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Although the number of new biomarkers increases continuously, none are included in practice guidelines. Most NMIBC biomarkers show a higher sensitivity than urinary cytology, but lower specificity. Some protein and chromosome markers have been approved for screening and follow-up of patients in combination with cystoscopy. The long interval required for validation, testing, and approval of the assays and the lack of standardization could explain present issues in biomarker research. To enhance the development of new biomarkers, a more structured approach is required.
Web of science
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