A Master's thesis.
Master (thesis) (master)
Characterization of tumor reactive CD8 T cells induced by peptide vaccination in melanoma patients
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Number of pages
ABSTRACT¦Naturally acquired tumor-specific T-cells can be detected in most advanced cancer patients.¦Yet, they often fail to control or eliminate the disease, in contrast to many virus-specific CD8¦T lymphocytes. Therapeutic vaccines aim at inducing and boosting specific T-cells mediated¦immunity to reduce tumor burden. The properties of CD8 T-cells required for protection from¦infectious disease and cancer are only partially characterized.¦The objectives of this study were to assess effector functions, stage of differentiation and¦clonotype selection of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes following peptide vaccination in¦melanoma patients over time. Results were compared to protective viral-specific T-cell¦responses found in healthy individuals. We also characterized dominant versus low/non¦dominant T-cell clonotypes with the aim to further understand the in vivo function of each set¦of frequency-based specific T-cells.¦Here we developed and applied a novel approach for molecular and functional analysis of¦single T lymphocytes ex vivo. T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotype mapping revealed rapid¦selection and expansion of co-dominant T-cell clonotypes, which made up the majority of the¦highly differentiated "effector" T-cells, but only 25% of the less differentiated "effectormemory"¦cells, mostly composed of non-dominant clonotypes. Moreover, we show that¦advanced effector cell differentiation was indeed clonotype-dependent. Surprisingly, however,¦the acquisition of effector functions (cytokine production, killing) was clonotype-independent.¦Vaccination of melanoma patients with native peptide induced competent effector function in¦both dominant and non-dominant clonotypes, suggesting that most if not all clonotypes¦participating in a T-cell response have the potential to develop equal functional competence.¦In contrast, many T-cells remained poorly functional after vaccination with analog peptide,¦despite similar clonotype-dependent differentiation. Our findings show that the type of¦peptide vaccine has a critical influence on the selection and functional activation of the¦clonotypic T-cell repertoire. They also show that systematic assessment of individual T-cells¦identifies the cellular basis of immune responses, contributing to the rational development of¦vaccines.
Human, melanoma, vaccination, EBV, CMV, CD8 T-cells, single-cell, differentiation, TCR repertoire, clonotype, gene expression, protein expression, cytolysis, molecular biology
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