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Perioperative nutrition in abdominal surgery: recommendations and reality.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Publication types: Journal ArticlePublication Status: ppublish
Introduction. Preoperative malnutrition is a major risk factor for increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Definition and diagnosis of malnutrition and its treatment is still subject for controversy. Furthermore, practical implementation of nutrition-related guidelines is unknown. Methods. A review of the available literature and of current guidelines on perioperative nutrition was conducted. We focused on nutritional screening and perioperative nutrition in patients undergoing digestive surgery, and we assessed translation of recent guidelines in clinical practice. Results and Conclusions. Malnutrition is a well-recognized risk factor for poor postoperative outcome. The prevalence of malnutrition depends largely on its definition; about 40% of patients undergoing major surgery fulfil current diagnostic criteria of being at nutritional risk. The Nutritional Risk Score is a pragmatic and validated tool to identify patients who should benefit from nutritional support. Adequate nutritional intervention entails reduced (infectious) complications, hospital stay, and costs. Preoperative oral supplementation of a minimum of five days is preferable; depending on the patient and the type of surgery, immune-enhancing formulas are recommended. However, surgeons' compliance with evidence-based guidelines remains poor and efforts are necessary to implement routine nutritional screening and nutritional support.
, MALNOURISHED SURGICAL-PATIENTS, TOTAL PARENTERAL-NUTRITION, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL, POSTOPERATIVE ENTERAL IMMUNONUTRITION, GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER-PATIENTS, PREOPERATIVE IMMUNONUTRITION, COLORECTAL SURGERY, MULTICENTER TRIAL, ESPEN GUIDELINES, GASTRIC-CANCER
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