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Elevated levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients are associated with glioblastoma and worse outcome.
International Journal of Cancer
For patients with brain tumors identification of diagnostic and prognostic markers in easy accessible biological material, such as plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), would greatly facilitate patient management. MIC-1/GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15) is a secreted protein of the TGF-beta superfamily and emerged as a candidate marker exhibiting increasing mRNA expression during malignant progression of glioma. Determination of MIC-1/GDF15 protein levels by ELISA in the CSF of a cohort of 94 patients with intracranial tumors including gliomas, meningioma and metastasis revealed significantly increased concentrations in glioblastoma patients (median, 229 pg/ml) when compared with control cohort of patients treated for non-neoplastic diseases (median below limit of detection of 156 pg/ml, p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). However, plasma MIC-1/GDF15 levels were not elevated in the matching plasma samples from these patients. Most interestingly, patients with glioblastoma and increased CSF MIC-1/GDF15 had a shorter survival (p = 0.007, log-rank test). In conclusion, MIC-1/GDF15 protein measured in the CSF may have diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with intracranial tumors.
Mic-1/Gdf15, Prognostic Biomarker, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Glioblastoma, Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1, Tgf-Beta Superfamily, High-Grade Gliomas, Growth-Factor-Beta, Gene-Expression, Serum-Levels, Morphogenetic Protein, Cancer, Mic-1, Member
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