Article: article from journal or magazin.
Biochemical analysis of female mice urine with reference to endocrine function: a key tool for estrus detection.
Species-specific chemical signals released through urine, sweat, saliva and feces are involved in communication between animals. Urinary biochemical constituents along with pheromones may contribute to variation across reproductive cycles and facilitate to estrus detection. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze such biochemical profiles, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, fatty acids, in response with steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone. The experimental groups were normal, prepubertal, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogentreated female mice. In normal mice, the protein and lipid concentrations in urine were significantly higher in proestrus and estrus phases and the quantity of fatty acids was also comparatively higher in estrus. Furthermore, certain fatty acids, namely tridecanoic, palmitic and oleic acids, were present during proestrus and estrus phases, but were exclusively absent in ovariectomized mice. However, the carbohydrate level was equally maintained throughout the four phases of estrous cycle. For successful communication, higher concentrations of protein and specific fatty acids in estrus are directly involved. The significant increase in estradiol at estrus and progesterone at metestrus seems to be of greater importance in the expression pattern of biochemical constituents and may play a notable role in estrous cycle regulation. Thus, we conclude that the variations observed in the concentration of the biochemical constituents depend on the phase of the reproductive cycle as well as hormonal status of animals. The appearance of protein and specific fatty acids during estrus phase raises the possibility to use these as a urinary indicators for estrus detection.
Animals, Estradiol/urine, Estrous Cycle/urine, Female, Mice, Ovariectomy, Progesterone/urine, Sexual Maturation
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