Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among asylum-seekers recently arrived in Switzerland : A pilot study in Vaud county
Title of the conference
79e Assemblée Annuelle de la Société Suisse de Médecine Interne Générale
Lausanne, Suisse, 11-13 mai 2011
Swiss Medical Forum
Background: Asylum seekers may have a higher rate of latenttuberculosis infection (LTBI) than resident populations in Westerncountries. LTBI can be detected by an Interferon Gamma ReleaseAssay (IGRA). Screening asylum seekers at highest risk for LTBI orfuture tuberculosis by IGRA could be considered. The aims of this pilotstudy were to assess the prevalence and the risk factors of LTBI amonga group of asylum seekers recently arrived in Switzerland.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed amongadult asylum seekers, staying in two migrant centers of the Vaud county,Switzerland, after a first screening for active tuberculosis at the border.The participants were offered IGRA screening using T-SPOT.TB andwere questioned about risk factors associated with LTBI. Migrants with apositive test had a chest radiograph and a medical examination. Thosewith active tuberculosis were excluded and were treated. The migrantswith LTBI received a preventive treatment, if indicated. The risk factorswere analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistical regression.Results: Among 788 migrants recently arrived, 639 were adults, 393agreed to be screened (61.50%) and 98 of them had a positive T-SPOT.TB (24.93%) of which 5 (5.1%) had an active tuberculosis (previouslynot detected at the border), and 2 had already been treated for activetuberculosis. In univariate analysis, the major risk factors associatedwith LTBI were country of origin and travel conditions. Compared withmigrants from Balkanic countries, migrants from Africa had an OR forLTBI of 3.68, migrants from Asia an OR of 4.3 and migrants fromFormer Soviet Union an OR of 4.5. Migrants who crossed severalborders before arriving in Switzerland had an OR of LTBI of 2.49compared with migrants who came directly from the home country.Age, cough and prior exposure to tuberculosis had a non-significantinfluence on the rate of test positivity. In multivariate analysis, thecombination of country of origin, travel conditions, age, cough andexposure to tuberculosis resulted in a score with optimal predictivevalue (Roc = 81%).Conclusions: Asylum seekers recently arrived in Vaud county had ahigh prevalence of LTBI and active tuberculosis. The major risk factorswere country of origin and travel conditions. Selecting for screening byIGRA the asylum seekers with the highest risk factors seems possible.
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