Inproceedings: An article in a conference proceedings.
Abstract (Abstract): shot summary in a article that contain essentials elements presented during a scientific conference, lecture or from a poster.
Astrocyte dense-core vesicle gliosecretion is governed by rest/nrsf
Title of the conference
10th European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease
Prague, Czech Republic, September 13-17, 2011
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Astrocytes are the brain non-nerve cells competent for the expression of clear and dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and for their regulated exocytosis. This process, called gliosecretion, nearly resembles the neurosecretion occurring in neurons and neurosecretory cells. REST/NRSF is a transcription repressor known to orchestrate nerve-cell differentiation, governing the expression of hundreds of neuron-specific genes through their repression in the non-nerve and their fine modulation in the nerve cells. Our previous studies in neurosecretory rat PC12 cells identified REST as the critical factor for the expression not only of individual genes, but also of the whole neurosecretory process via multiple, direct and indirect mechanisms (D'Alessandro et al., J. Neurochem., 2008; Klajn et al., J. Neurosci., 2009). Therefore we wondered whether gliosecretion was governed by REST. We investigated rat astrocyte primary cultures: they exhibited high REST, which directly represses the transcription of at least one target gene, and expressed neither DCVs nor their markers (granins, peptides, membrane proteins). Transfection of a dominant-negative construct of REST (REST/ DBD-GFP) induced the appearance of DCVs filled with secretogranin2 and NPY that are distinct from other intracellular organelles. TIRF analysis of astrocytes co-transfected with REST/DBD-GFP and NPY-mRFP constructs revealed NPY-mRFP-positive DCVs undergoing Ca2þ-dependent exocytosis, largely prevented by BoNT/B. Immunohistochemistry of the I-II layers of the human temporal brain cortex showed all neurons and microglia exhibiting the expected inappreciable and high levels of REST, respectively. In contrast astrocyte RESTwas variable, going from inappreciable to high, accompanied by variable expression of DCVs. In this work it has been demonstrated that astrocyte DCV expression and gliosecretion are governed by REST (Prada et al., 2011 in press). The variable in situ REST levels may contribute to the well known structural/functional heterogeneity of astrocytes and this new observation might be of great interest for the understanding of both astrocyte physiology and pathology.
REST/NRSF, dense-core vesicle gliosecretion, astrocyte,
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