Inproceedings: An article in a conference proceedings.
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Combinatorial Anti-arenaviral Therapy with the Small Molecule SKI-1/S1P Inhibitor PF-429242 and Ribavirin
Title of the conference
24th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR)
Sofia, Bulgaria, May 8-11, 2011
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Arenaviruses are enveloped negative strand viruses that cause acute and chronic infections. Several Arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. In West Africa Lassa virus causes several hundred thousand infections per year, while Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, and Sabia virus have emerged in South America. So far, only one drug is licensed against arenaviruses, the nucleoside analogue Ribavirin (Rib), which is effective when given early in disease, but shows only minor therapeutic effects in late stages of the infection. Previous works demonstrated that processing of the arenavirus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular proprotein convertase site 1 protease (S1P), also known as subtilisin-kexinisozyme 1 (SKI-1), is crucial for cell-to-cell propagation of infectionand production of infectious virus. Recently, the SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242wasshownto inhibit Old World arenavirusGPCprocessing, cell-to-cell propagation, and infectious virus production. In the present study, we assessed the activity of PF-429242 against processing of the GPCs of the genetically and structurally more distant New World arenaviruses and found potent inhibition of processing of the GPCs of Junin, Machupo, and Guanarito virus. Using the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), we studied the potency of PF-429242 in the context of acute and chronic infection. In line with published data, PF-429242 potently inhibited acute LCMV infection. PF-429242 was also highly active against chronic infection and drug treatment resulted in rapid extinction of the virus without emergence of drug-resistant variants. In a combinatorial drug approach, we found that PF-429242 potentiated the anti-viral effect of Rib in treatment of acute andchronic infection. Taken together, we showed that the SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 is broadly active against GPC processing of all major human pathogenic arenaviruses. Apart from being potent in acute infection, the drug is remarkably active in clearing chronic infection and potentiated the anti-arenaviral activity of Rib.
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