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Role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in the neuroendocrine control of human reproduction.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is critical for a broad range of developmental processes. In 2003, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) was discovered as a novel locus causing both forms of isolate GnRH Deficiency, Kallmann syndrome [KS with anosmia] and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [nIHH] eventually accounting for approximately 10% of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency cases. Such cases are characterized by a broad spectrum of reproductive phenotypes from severe congenital forms of GnRH deficiency to reversal of HH. Additionally, the variable expressivity of both reproductive and non-reproductive phenotypes among patients and family members harboring the identical FGFR1 mutations has pointed to a more complex, oligogenic model for GnRH deficiency. Further, reversal of HH in patients carrying FGFR1 mutations suggests potential gene-environment interactions in human GnRH deficiency disorders.
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