Article: article from journal or magazin.
Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds and health risk assessment for diesel-exhaust exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
OBJECTIVES: Workers' exposure to diesel exhaust in a bus depot, a truck repair workshop and an underground tunnel was determined by the measuring of elemental carbon (EC) and 15 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) proposed by the US Department of Health and Human Services/National Toxicology Program (NTP). Based on these concentration data, the genotoxic PAC contribution to the diesel-exhaust particle (DEP) lung-cancer risk was calculated. METHOD: Respirable particulate matter was collected during the summer and winter of 2001 (except for in the underground situation) and analysed by coulometry for EC and by GC-MS methods for PACs. The use of potency equivalence factors (PEFs) allowed the studied PAC concentrations to be expressed as benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (B[a]P(eq)). We then calculated the lung-cancer risk due to PACs and DEPs by multiplying the B[a]P(eq) and EC concentrations by the corresponding unit risk factor. The ratio of these two risks values has been considered as an estimate of the genotoxic contribution to the DEP cancer risk. RESULTS: For the bus depot and truck repair workshop, exposure to EC and PACs has been shown to increase by three to six times and ten times, respectively, during winter compared to summer. This increase has been attributed mainly to a decrease in ventilation during the cold. With the PEF approach, the B[a]P(eq) concentration is five-times higher than if only benzo[ a]pyrene (B[a]P) is considered. Dibenzopyrenes contribute an important part to this increase. A simple calculation based on unit risk factors indicates that the studied PAC contribution to the total lung-cancer risk attributed to DEPs is in the range of 3-13%. CONCLUSIONS: The 15 NTP PACs represent a small but non-negligible part of lung-cancer risk with regard to diesel exposure. From this point of view, the dibenzopyrene family are important compounds to be considered.
Air Pollutants, Occupational, Carbon, Carcinogens, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Lung Neoplasms, Motor Vehicles, Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic, Risk Assessment, Seasons, Vehicle Emissions, Ventilation
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