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Pressing the right buttons: signaling in lymphangiogenesis.
Lymphatic vasculature is increasingly recognized as an important factor both in the regulation of normal tissue homeostasis and immune response and in many diseases, such as inflammation, cancer, obesity, and hypertension. In the last few years, in addition to the central role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 signaling in lymphangiogenesis, significant new insights were obtained about Notch, transforming growth factor β/bone morphogenetic protein, Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, and Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling pathways in the control of growth and remodeling of lymphatic vessels. An emerging picture of lymphangiogenic signaling is complex and in many ways distinct from the regulation of angiogenesis. This complexity provides new challenges, but also new opportunities for selective therapeutic targeting of lymphatic vasculature.
Angiopoietins/metabolism, Animals, Collagen/metabolism, Ephrins/metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Lymphangiogenesis/physiology, Lymphatic Vessels/metabolism, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism, Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Signal Transduction, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3/metabolism
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