Article: article from journal or magazin.
Involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene transcription up-regulation induced by interleukin- 1 beta in ectopic endometrial cells.
Fertility and Sterility
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in the interleukin (IL)-1 beta-mediated macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene activation. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Human reproduction research laboratory. PATIENT(S): Nine women with endometriotic lesions. INTERVENTION(S): Endometriotic lesions were obtained during laparoscopic surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The MIF protein secretion was analyzed by ELISA, MIF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus by electrophoresis mobility shift assay, I kappaB phosphorylation and degradation by Western blot, and human MIF promoter activity by transient cell transfection. RESULT(S): This study showed a significant dose-dependent increase of MIF protein secretion and mRNA expression, the NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus, I kappaB phosphorylation, I kappaB degradation, and human MIF promoter activity in endometriotic stromal cells in response to IL-1 beta. Curcumin (NF-kappaB inhibitor) significantly inhibited all these IL-1 beta-mediated effects. Analysis of the activity of deletion constructs of the human MIF promoter and a computer search localized two putative regulatory elements corresponding to NF-kappaB binding sites at positions -2538/-2528 bp and -1389/-1380 bp. CONCLUSION(S): This study suggests the involvement of the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB in MIF gene activation in ectopic endometrial cells in response to IL-1 beta and identifies a possible pathway of endometriosis-associated inflammation and ectopic cell growth.
Cell Culture Techniques, Endometriosis/genetics, Endometriosis/pathology, Female, Humans, Interleukin-1beta/pharmacology, Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/genetics, NF-kappa B/physiology, Pregnancy, Pregnancy, Ectopic/genetics, RNA, Messenger/genetics, Transcription, Genetic/drug effects, Up-Regulation/drug effects
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