Article: article from journal or magazin.
Promoter and transcription analysis of penicillin-binding protein genes in Streptococcus gordonii.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
An optimally cross-linked peptidoglycan requires both transglycosylation and transpeptidation, provided by class A and class B penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Streptococcus gordonii possesses three class A PBPs (PBPs 1A, 1B, and 2A) and two class B PBPs (PBPs 2B and 2X) that are important for penicillin resistance. High-level resistance (MIC, > or =2 microg/ml) requires mutations in class B PBPs. However, although unmutated, class A PBPs are critical to facilitate resistance development (M. Haenni and P. Moreillon, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:4053-4061, 2006). Thus, their overexpression might be important to sustain the drug. Here, we determined the promoter regions of the S. gordonii PBPs and compared them to those of other streptococci. The extended -10 box was highly conserved and complied with a sigma(A)-type promoter consensus sequence. In contrast, the -35 box was poorly conserved, leaving the possibility of differential PBP regulation. Gene expression in a penicillin-susceptible parent (MIC, 0.008 microg/ml) and a high-level-resistant mutant (MIC, 2 microg/ml) was monitored using luciferase fusions. In the absence of penicillin, all PBPs were constitutively expressed, but their expression was globally increased (1.5 to 2 times) in the resistant mutant. In the presence of penicillin, class A PBPs were specifically overexpressed both in the parent (PBP 2A) and in the resistant mutant (PBPs 1A and 2A). By increasing transglycosylation, class A PBPs could promote peptidoglycan stability when transpeptidase is inhibited by penicillin. Since penicillin-related induction of class A PBPs occurred in both susceptible and resistant cells, such a mutation-independent facilitating mechanism could be operative at each step of resistance development.
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Base Sequence, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Genes, Bacterial, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Penicillin-Binding Proteins/chemistry, Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics, Penicillins/pharmacology, Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics, Streptococcus/drug effects, Streptococcus/genetics, Transcription, Genetic
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