Article: article from journal or magazin.
Duplications of a mutated simian virus 40 enhancer restore its activity.
Enhancers are cis-acting control elements which can stimulate at a distance the activity of a variety of eukaryotic promoters. First identified as a repeated 72 base pair (bp) sequence upstream of the simian virus 40 (SV40) early gene promoter, enhancers have since been shown to be associated with numerous other viral and cellular genes. Although there are no strong homologies between the sequences of different enhancers, a number of short and degenerate consensus sequences have been identified, including the 'core' element GTGGA/TA/TA/TG and stretches of alternating purines and pyrimidines which may have the potential to form left-handed Z DNA. To study the functional significance of two alternating purine and pyrimidine sequences in the SV40 enhancer, we have introduced various combinations of point mutations into a modified SV40 enhancer which contained only one copy of the 72 bp element (W.H., Y.G., A. Nordheim and A. Rich, unpublished results); one of these combinations impaired both the activity of the enhancer and growth of SV40. We describe here the structure of 18 revertants of this mutant and suggest that in each of the 18 revertants, the defects of the original mutant have been overcome by simple tandem duplications in the enhancer region, all of which include the 'core' element.
DNA, Recombinant, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Genes, Regulator, Globins/genetics, Mutation, Phenotype, Simian virus 40/genetics
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