Article: article from journal or magazin.
Molecular pathways involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol on insulinoma cells.
We have previously reported that in tumorigenic pancreatic beta-cells, calcitriol exerts a potent antitumorigenic effect by inducing apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and reduction of solid beta-cell tumors. Here we have studied the molecular pathways involved in the antineoplastic activity of calcitriol on mouse insulinoma beta TC(3) cells, mouse insulinoma beta TC expressing or not expressing the oncogene p53, and beta TC-tet cells overexpressing or not the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2. Our results indicate that calcitriol-induced apoptosis was dependent on the function of p53 and was associated with a biphasic increase in protein levels of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B. Calcitriol decreased cell viability by about 40% in p53-retaining beta TC and in beta TC(3) cells; in contrast, beta TC p53(-/-) cells were only minimally affected. Calcitriol-induced cell death was regulated by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulatory proteins, as shown by calcitriol-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic Bax and Bak and the lack of calcitriol-induced cytotoxicity in Bcl-2-overexpressing insulinoma cells. Moreover, calcitriol-mediated arrest of beta TC(3) cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle was associated with the abnormal expression of p21 and G(2)/M-specific cyclin B2 genes and involved the DNA damage-inducible factor GADD45. Finally, in beta TC(3) cells, calcitriol modulated the expression of IGF-I and IGF-II genes. In conclusion, these findings contribute to the understanding of the antitumorigenic effects of calcitriol on tumorigenic pancreatic beta-cells and further support the rationale of its utilization in the treatment of patients with malignant insulinomas.
Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, Calcitriol, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21, Cyclins, Drug Resistance, Gene Expression, I-kappa B Proteins, Insulinoma, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Mice, NF-kappa B, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Phosphorylation, Proline, Proteins, Thiocarbamates, Time Factors, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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