Article: article from journal or magazin.
JNK inhibition and inflammation after cerebral ischemia.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling pathway (JNK) is highly activated during ischemia and plays an important role in apoptosis and inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that D-JNKI1, a specific JNK inhibitor, is strongly neuroprotective in animal models of stroke. We presently evaluated if D-JNKI1 modulates post-ischemic inflammation such as the activation and accumulation of microglial cells. Outbred CD1 mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). D-JNKI1 (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was administered intravenously 3 h after MCAo onset. Lesion size at 48 h was significantly reduced, from 28.2+/-8.5 mm(3) (n=7) to 13.9+/-6.2 mm(3) in the treated group (n=6). Activation of the JNK pathway (phosphorylation of c-Jun) was observed in neurons as well as in Isolectin B4 positive microglia. We quantified activated microglia (CD11b) by measuring the average intensity of CD11b labelling (infra-red emission) within the ischemic tissue. No significant difference was found between groups. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro by subjecting rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to oxygen (5%) and glucose deprivation for 30 min. In vitro, D-JNKI1 was found predominantly in NeuN positive neurons of the CA1 region and in few Isolectin B4 positive microglia. Furthermore, 48 h after OGD, microglia were activated whereas resting microglia were found in controls and in D-JNKI1-treated slices. Our study shows that D-JNKI1 reduces the infarct volume 48 h after transient MCAo and does not act on the activation and accumulation of microglia at this time point. In contrast, in vitro data show an indirect effect of D-JNKI1 on the modulation of microglial activation.
c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase, Microglia, Neuroprotection, Inflammation, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion, Oxygen And Glucose Deprivation, N-Terminal Kinase, Hippocampal Slice Cultures, C-Jun, Mouse-Brain, Molecular-Mechanisms, Peptide Inhibitor, Microglial Cells, Injured Brain, Stroke, Cytokines
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