Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Asthme aigu sévère [Severe acute asthma]
Revue Médicale de la Suisse romande
Publication types: English Abstract ; Journal Article ; Review
Acute severe asthma is defined by the occurrence of an acute exacerbation resistant to the initial medical treatment, complicated by life-threatening respiratory distress due to severe lung hyperinflation. The conventional therapeutic approach is based on oxygen therapy and on the combined treatment of inhaled beta2-agonists at repeated doses and systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled or systemic magnesium sulfate is also recommended. The unresponsiveness to the initial bronchodilating therapy and the development of respiratory distress requiring intubation significantly increases mortality, due to the complications induced by mechanical ventilation. In these situations, a ventilatory strategy, including controlled hypoventilation with permissive hypercapnia, aiming at preventing lung hyperinflation, is indicated. Non-invasive ventilation may be successful in certain patients and represents an effective alternative to intubation. In ventilated patients, helium-oxygen mixtures can be considered as adjunctive therapies. After having reviewed the basic pathophysiological principles, this article will focus on the current medical treatment and of the modalities of mechanical ventilation in acute severe asthma.
Acute Disease, Asthma/diagnosis, Asthma/physiopathology, Humans, Respiration, Artificial, Severity of Illness Index
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