Article: article from journal or magazin.
Macronutrients and colorectal cancer: a Swiss case-control study.
Annals of Oncology
BACKGROUND: A role of energy and various nutrients, including protein, sugar, saturated and unsaturated fats, in colorectal cancer risk has been suggested, but should be better defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The association between dietary intake of various macronutrients and colorectal cancer risk was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 2000 in the Swiss Canton of Vaud. The study comprised 286 case subjects (174 males, 112 females; median age 65 years) with incident, histologically confirmed colon (n = 149) or rectal (n = 137) cancer, and 550 control subjects (269 males, 281 females; median age 59 years) admitted to the same University Hospital for a wide spectrum of acute non-neoplastic conditions. Dietary habits were investigated using a validated food frequency questionnaire, including questions on 79 foods or recipes and on individual fat intake pattern. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for age, sex, education, physical activity and energy intake. RESULTS: The risk of colon and rectal cancer increased with total energy intake (OR in highest and lowest tertile, 2.0 and 2.2, respectively). There was no significant relation with starches or proteins, a significant inverse relation with sugars (OR for the highest tertile, 0.5), a direct trend in risk of borderline significance for saturated fats (OR = 1.4 for the highest tertile), and significant inverse trends for monounsaturated (OR = 0.6) and polyunsaturated fats (OR = 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that energy intake is directly related to colorectal cancer risk, and that different types of fat may have different roles in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology, Colonic Neoplasms/etiology, Diet/adverse effects, Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage, Dietary Fats/administration & dosage, Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage, Energy Intake, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Rectal Neoplasms/epidemiology, Rectal Neoplasms/etiology, Switzerland/epidemiology
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